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Apitherapeutic Nanofiberous Wound Dressing to Promote Wound Healing

Technology #inv174092014

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Hassan Azzazy
Professor of Chemistry
Wesam Sarhan
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Ahmed Ellaithy
Director, Technology Transfer +20226153112
Ingy Darwish
Licensing Officer +20226153130
Patent Protection

PCT Patent Application PCT/US2014/045456
Phage approved in food, why not as a therapeutic?
Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy, Volume 13, Issue 1, 2015
High concentration honey chitosan electrospun nanofibers: Biocompatibility and antibacterial effects
Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 122, 20 May 2015, Pages 135–143
Honey/Chitosan Nanofiber Wound Dressing Enriched with Allium sativum and Cleome droserifolia: Enhanced Antimicrobial and Wound Healing Activity.
ACS applied materials & interfaces, 2016 Mar 7
The effect of increasing honey concentration on the properties of the honey/polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan nanofibers
Materials Science and Engineering: C, Volume 67, 1 October 2016, Pages 276–284


A cost-effective Api-therapeutic Nanofibrous scaffold. This unique high honey concentration api-therapeutic wound dressing, electrospun using PVA, garlic and chitosan is used to promote wound healing and can be used for the treatment of chronic wounds like diabetic foot infections, burns, all types of ulcers, as well as surgical and traumatic wounds according to the loaded components.


In developed as well as in developing nations, the market is shifting towards advanced wound-care dressings. The latest advances in the field of nanotechnology have enabled the fabrication of nanofibrous constructs having architectural features and morphological similarities matching the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) of the skin. In addition, the electrospinning process can be invoked to impregnate the nanofiber membranes with antibacterial and therapeutic agents.  

Making electrospun honey nanofibers is challenging, requiring special fabrication techniques as they require the optimization of various parameters, most importantly viscosity. The highest concentration of honey that has been transformed into nanofibers was 9%. This concentration remains insufficient, as various studies have proved that to in order to achieve the antibacterial activity of honey, its concentration should be between 30% -50% or more.

The additional high cost of advanced dressing products also poses a challenge. This invention entails a cost effective and innovative dressing that allows for the first time the incorporation of high honey concentrations into a nanofibrous mesh.


A nanofiber-based wound dressings (NFDs), based on naturally present cost effective materials; as honey and garlic was made using both synthetic and natural polymers PVA and Chitosan. In addition to honey, the developed nanofiber scaffold can also be loaded with other api-therapeutics as propolis and bee venom with or without bacteriophages. This dressing differs from any other honey based nanofibrous scaffold in that the concentration of honey incorporated in the nanofibers is much higher than that ever stated, reaching 50% of the total scaffold weight. It is the unique combination developed using garlic, honey and chitosan, that enabled reaching optimum viscosity to spin such high concentrations using biocompatible solvents.

Being biodegradable, upon wound application, the nano-fiberous matrix starts to slowly degrade leading to the prolonged release of these components to the wound site. The degradation and simultaneous release of the components of the matrix allows for the antibacterial activities and wound healing properties of them to be exerted on the applied wound for prolonged periods of time, without scarring the skin.


  • Resembles ECM promoting better wound healing

  • Induce haemostasis.

  • Absorbs wound exudates efficiently.

  • Semi-permeable: Facilitates cell respiration due to porosity.

  • Conformability: Facilitate 3-D dressing due to flexibility of NFs.

  • Functional ability: Accommodates antibiotics and analgesics through co-spinning.

  • Biodegradable & Scar free

  • Synergistic antibacterial effect between the bacteriophages & Apitherpeutics

Stage of Development

  • In-vivo animal studies: Testing wound closure rate on dorsal back of mice using the different prototypes developed. Followed by histopathological examination to the wound site.

  • Cytotoxicity evaluation of the different prototypes developed.

  • Tested Prototypes vs. AQUACEL® Ag (commercial wound dressing) in the antibacterial, wound healing, cytotoxicity and histopathological examination.